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11年从无到有 他组建中国灾后心理救援队

来源: 南方日报网络版     时间: 2019-09-19 03:59:34
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  11年从无到有 他组建中国灾后心理救援队

  

2011(年)3(月)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)((右)(二))(在)(云)(南)(盈)(江)(灾)(区)(安)(抚)(受)(灾)(群)(众)(。)

(爱)(国)(情) (奋)(斗)(者)

11(年)(很)(长)(,)(也)(很)(短)(。)

11(年)(前)(,)(参)(与)(汶)(川)(地)(震)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(时)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(是)(中)(国)(科)(学)(院)(心)(理)(研)(究)(所)((以)(下)(简)(称)(心)(理)(所))(的)(一)(名)(研)(究)(生)(。)(现)(在)(,)(他)(是)(心)(理)(所)(全)(国)(心)(理)(援)(助)(联)(盟)(秘)(书)(长)(。)

(“)(我)(最)(自)(豪)(的)(,)(就)(是)(完)(成)(了)(心)(理)(所)(前)(所)(长)(张)(侃)(老)(师)(的)(心)(愿)(,)(初)(步)(建)(立)(了)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(全)(国)(联)(盟)(和)(长)(效)(机)(制)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(。)

(最)(近)(这)(一)(年)(,)(他)(去)(到)(四)(川)(宜)(宾)(、)(贵)(州)(水)(城)(等)(多)(地)(。)(哪)(里)(有)(灾)(难)(,)(哪)(里)(就)(有)(心)(理)(援)(助)(,)(哪)(里)(就)(有)(他)(。)(前)(不)(久)(,)(他)(才)(从)(四)(川)(宜)(宾)(地)(震)(灾)(区)(返)(回)(北)(京)(。)

(当)(年)(抱)(着)(“)(喝)(喝)(咖)(啡)(、)(聊)(聊)(天)(就)(能)(赚)(钱)(”)(的)(美)(好)(愿)(望)(报)(考)(心)(理)(所)(的)(吴)(坎)(坎)(笑)(称)(,)(如)(今)(只)(做)(到)(了)(能)(经)(常)(“)(聊)(聊)(天)(”)(。)

(执)(拗)(地)(在)(依)(然)(小)(众)(且)(相)(对)(不)(太)(主)(流)(的)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(领)(域)(里)(摸)(索)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(这)(个)(过)(程)(虽)(辛)(苦)(,)(但)(却)(让)(他)(倍)(感)(欣)(慰)(。)

(第)(一)(次)(觉)(得)(“)(心)(理)(学)(有)(用)(”)

(吴)(坎)(坎)(第)(一)(次)(接)(触)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(,)(是)(在)2008(年)(。)

(那)(年)(,)(汶)(川)(地)(震)(猝)(不)(及)(防)(地)(让)(许)(多)(人)(失)(去)(了)(家)(园)(、)(亲)(人)(。)(地)(震)(发)(生)(后)(,)(在)(时)(任)(所)(长)(张)(侃)(的)(推)(动)(下)(,)(心)(理)(所)(迅)(速)(组)(织)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(队)(开)(赴)(灾)(区)(。)

(这)(是)(一)(次)(倾)(心)(理)(所)(全)(所)(之)(力)(的)(行)(动)(,)(这)(也)(是)(国)(内)(首)(次)(真)(正)(意)(义)(上)(的)(大)(规)(模)(心)(理)(援)(助)(。)

(吴)(坎)(坎)(的)(导)(师)(也)(在)(援)(助)(队)(伍)(中)(。)(他)(很)(想)(去)(灾)(区)(,)(就)(给)(导)(师)(发)(了)(一)(封)(申)(请)(邮)(件)(。)(导)(师)(认)(为)(他)(没)(有)(太)(多)(经)(验)(,)(还)(是)(等)(情)(况)(稳)(定)(一)(点)(后)(再)(来)(。)2008(年)6(月)12(日)(,)(在)(地)(震)(发)(生)(后)(一)(个)(月)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(来)(到)(了)(北)(川)(,)(协)(助)(心)(理)(学)(专)(家)(工)(作)(。)

(那)(是)(吴)(坎)(坎)(头)(一)(次)(如)(此)(近)(距)(离)(地)(接)(触)(到)(大)(规)(模)(的)(死)(亡)(,)(也)(是)(第)(一)(次)(发)(觉)(“)(心)(理)(学)(有)(用)(”)(,)(它)(能)(实)(实)(在)(在)(地)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(,)(甚)(至)(可)(以)(救)(命)(。)

(对)(于)(国)(内)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(来)(说)(,)2008(年)(是)(个)(分)(界)(线)(。)(此)(前)(,)(心)(理)(援)(助)(活)(动)(只)(是)(零)(零)(散)(散)(地)(展)(开)(。)(汶)(川)(地)(震)(后)(,)(国)(内)(开)(设)(心)(理)(学)(专)(业)(的)(高)(校)(几)(乎)(全)(部)(派)(出)(师)(生)(前)(往)(灾)(区)(,)(心)(理)(援)(助)(也)(开)(始)(为)(公)(众)(所)(知)(。)

(虽)(然)(学)(了)(多)(年)(的)(心)(理)(学)(,)(但)(是)(面)(对)(如)(此)(巨)(大)(的)(灾)(难)(、)(面)(对)(如)(此)(庞)(大)(的)(受)(灾)(人)(群)(,)(特)(别)(是)(丧)(亲)(家)(庭)(的)(悲)(痛)(欲)(绝)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(手)(足)(无)(措)(。)

(他)(只)(能)(多)(看)(多)(听)(多)(学)(多)(做)(。)(“)(早)(期)(在)(灾)(区)(的)(工)(作)(性)(质)(类)(似)(义)(工)(,)(我)(基)(本)(什)(么)(都)(干)(过)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(等)(真)(正)(开)(始)(开)(展)(专)(业)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(后)(,)(让)(他)(感)(到)(最)(难)(的)(,)(就)(是)(如)(何)(与)(援)(助)(对)(象)(建)(立)(起)(互)(相)(信)(任)(的)(关)(系)(。)

(灾)(区)(内)(的)(东)(方)(汽)(轮)(机)(厂)(受)(灾)(非)(常)(严)(重)(,)(为)(保)(证)(安)(全)(,)(整)(个)(工)(厂)(的)(家)(属)(区)(在)(灾)(后)(就)(被)(封)(锁)(了)(,)(厂)(内)(职)(工)(只)(能)(在)(限)(定)(时)(间)(内)(把)(家)(里)(的)(东)(西)(搬)(到)(临)(时)(板)(房)(区)(去)(。)

(为)(了)(迅)(速)(和)(这)(里)(的)(职)(工)(熟)(络)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(常)(去)(帮)(他)(们)(搬)(家)(,)(虽)(然)(每)(天)(都)(累)(得)(全)(身)(酸)(痛)(,)(但)(也)(取)(得)(了)(很)(好)(的)(效)(果)(,)(在)(很)(短)(的)(时)(间)(内)(就)(与)(东)(方)(汽)(轮)(机)(厂)(职)(工)(们)(建)(立)(了)(良)(好)(的)(关)(系)(,)(攻)(克)(了)(工)(作)(中)(最)(大)(的)(难)(关)(。)

(吴)(坎)(坎)(持)(续)(在)(四)(川)(绵)(竹)(和)(德)(阳)(待)(了)(近)(两)(年)(的)(时)(间)(。)(此)(后)(,)(他)(的)(脚)(步)(一)(路)(追)(随)(着)(灾)(难)(发)(生)(的)(足)(迹)(,)(走)(到)(了)(玉)(树)(、)(舟)(曲)(、)(盈)(江)(、)(彝)(良)(等)(十)(几)(个)(灾)(区)(。)

(点)(滴)(摸)(索)(成)(就)(专)(业)(规)(范)

11(年)(前)(的)(那)(场)(地)(震)(改)(变)(了)(很)(多)(人)(的)(命)(运)(,)(包)(括)(吴)(坎)(坎)(。)

(毕)(业)(后)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(留)(在)(心)(理)(所)(工)(作)(,)(成)(为)(全)(国)(极)(少)(数)(的)(全)(职)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(人)(员)(。)(当)(年)(一)(起)(读)(心)(理)(学)(硕)(士)(的)40(多)(个)(同)(学)(,)(只)(有)(他)(留)(在)(了)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(领)(域)(。)

(沿)(着)(张)(侃)(所)(长)(及)(前)(辈)(的)(脚)(步)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(开)(始)(思)(索)(如)(何)(将)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(做)(得)(更)(专)(业)(。)

(在)(汶)(川)(地)(震)(期)(间)(,)(全)(国)(心)(理)(学)(专)(业)(师)(生)(蜂)(拥)(而)(至)(,)(但)(由)(于)(经)(验)(不)(足)(,)(发)(生)(过)(频)(繁)(“)(骚)(扰)(”)(灾)(区)(民)(众)(、)(揭)(伤)(疤)(等)(事)(件)(。)

(“)(我)(们)(最)(开)(始)(也)(不)(太)(懂)(,)(往)(往)(就)(是)(拿)(着)(评)(估)(工)(具)(走)(访)(群)(众)(,)(比)(如)(你)(家)(里)(有)(没)(有)(亲)(人)(去)(世)(之)(类)(的)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(但)(这)(种)(揭)(伤)(疤)(的)(做)(法)(适)(得)(其)(反)(,)(“)(甚)(至)(当)(时)(有)(种)(说)(法)(叫)(‘)(防)(火)(防)(盗)(防)(心)(理)(’)(”)(。)

(“)(我)(们)(现)(在)(就)(不)(会)(拿)(着)(问)(卷)(去)(了)(,)(而)(是)(将)(其)(默)(记)(在)(心)(里)(,)(在)(建)(立)(关)(系)(后)(,)(等)(待)(访)(谈)(对)(象)(主)(动)(敞)(开)(心)(扉)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(。)

(这)(么)(多)(年)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(中)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(一)(直)(难)(以)(忘)(记)(的)(,)(是)(一)(个)(八)(九)(岁)(的)(小)(姑)(娘)(。)(这)(个)(女)(孩)(因)(受)(惊)(吓)(变)(得)(自)(闭)(、)(不)(爱)(说)(话)(。)(在)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(人)(员)(的)(陪)(伴)(下)(,)(她)(逐)(渐)(变)(得)(开)(朗)(,)(并)(成)(为)(小)(志)(愿)(者)(的)(组)(长)(。)

(“)(等)(我)(们)(离)(开)(时)(,)(她)(追)(着)(我)(们)(的)(车)(跑)(了)(很)(远)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(当)(时)(的)(他)(感)(动)(又)(心)(疼)(。)(他)(意)(识)(到)(,)(太)(过)(亲)(密)(的)(关)(系)(给)(孩)(子)(们)(带)(来)(的)(二)(次)(心)(理)(伤)(害)(同)(样)(不)(容)(忽)(视)(。)

(“)(对)(孩)(子)(来)(说)(,)(如)(果)(志)(愿)(者)(、)(心)(理)(咨)(询)(师)(与)(他)(们)(太)(过)(亲)(密)(,)(孩)(子)(就)(会)(特)(别)(喜)(欢)(黏)(着)(你)(,)(感)(觉)(你)(能)(替)(代)(他)(们)(已)(经)(去)(世)(的)(亲)(人)(。)(但)(实)(际)(上)(,)(志)(愿)(者)(和)(心)(理)(咨)(询)(师)(服)(务)(时)(间)(再)(长)(,)(也)(终)(究)(是)(要)(走)(的)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(“)(所)(以)(后)(来)(我)(们)(在)(与)(孩)(子)(们)(相)(处)(时)(,)(就)(会)(注)(意)(自)(己)(的)(身)(份)(,)(也)(会)(告)(诉)(孩)(子)(我)(们)(会)(离)(开)(的)(时)(间)(,)(让)(他)(们)(慢)(慢)(接)(受)(,)(避)(免)(造)(成)(二)(次)(伤)(害)(。)(”)

(以)(心)(理)(所)(这)(支)(“)(国)(家)(队)(”)(为)(主)(力)(军)(的)(中)(国)(心)(理)(援)(助)(,)(就)(这)(样)(在)(一)(点)(一)(滴)(的)(探)(索)(中)(逐)(步)(规)(范)(、)(成)(长)(起)(来)(。)

(基)(于)(这)(些)(实)(践)(,)(我)(国)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(理)(论)(也)(不)(断)(进)(步)(。)(近)(年)(来)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(参)(与)(探)(索)(了)(适)(用)(于)(国)(人)(的)(心)(理)(创)(伤)(诊)(断)(标)(准)(。)(他)(带)(领)(团)(队)(自)(主)(研)(发)(的)(全)(国)(心)(理)(援)(助)(联)(盟)(心)(理)(援)(助)(技)(术)(平)(台)(,)(建)(成)(了)(拥)(有)38(万)(名)(受)(灾)(群)(众)(的)(包)(含)(多)(项)(生)(物)(与)(心)(理)(健)(康)(指)(标)(的)(数)(据)(平)(台)(,)(并)(形)(成)(了)(系)(列)(流)(行)(病)(学)(、)(症)(状)(分)(类)(和)(临)(床)(干)(预)(研)(究)(报)(告)(。)

2008(年)6(月)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)((左)(二))(在)(四)(川)(绵)(竹)(灾)(区)(开)(展)(辅)(导)(活)(动)(。)

(培)(养)(当)(地)(心)(理)(援)(助)(力)(量)

(相)(比)(于)(这)(些)(成)(绩)(,)(让)(吴)(坎)(更)(有)(成)(就)(感)(的)(,)(是)(他)(亲)(手)(推)(动)(建)(立)(起)(一)(支)(长)(期)(致)(力)(于)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(队)(伍)(。)

(据)2009(年)(的)(媒)(体)(报)(道)(,)(在)(四)(川)(地)(震)(灾)(区)(工)(作)(过)(半)(个)(月)(以)(上)(的)(心)(理)(干)(预)(志)(愿)(者)(虽)(有)(近)2000(人)(,)(但)(有)(经)(验)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(者)(却)(相)(当)(稀)(缺)(。)

2015(年)(,)(在)(心)(理)(所)(现)(任)(所)(长)(傅)(小)(兰)(的)(支)(持)(下)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(作)(为)(秘)(书)(长)(推)(动)(成)(立)(了)(心)(理)(所)(全)(国)(心)(理)(援)(助)(联)(盟)(,)(把)(有)(经)(验)(的)(、)(仍)(在)(做)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(专)(家)(和)(专)(业)(志)(愿)(者)(聚)(集)(了)(起)(来)(。)

(截)(至)(目)(前)(,)(联)(盟)(已)(有)(专)(家)100(余)(人)(,)(成)(员)(单)(位)65(家)(,)(可)(随)(时)(调)(用)(并)(参)(与)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(超)(过)1(个)(月)(的)(专)(业)(志)(愿)(者)150(余)(人)(,)(初)(步)(建)(立)(起)(了)(覆)(盖)(全)(国)(各)(省)(市)(的)(应)(急)(管)(理)(的)(专)(业)(心)(理)(援)(助)(队)(伍)(体)(系)(。)

(他)(们)(现)(在)(的)(工)(作)(模)(式)(是)(,)(灾)(难)(发)(生)(后)(,)(联)(盟)(工)(作)(人)(员)(首)(先)(进)(行)(需)(求)(调)(研)(,)(了)(解)(好)(是)(否)(需)(要)(派)(人)(、)(派)(什)(么)(人)(、)(在)(哪)(里)(能)(开)(展)(工)(作)(等)(情)(况)(,)(同)(时)(与)(当)(地)(政)(府)(、)(医)(院)(、)(基)(金)(会)(等)(机)(构)(取)(得)(联)(系)(,)(随)(后)(派)(出)(有)(经)(验)(的)(志)(愿)(者)(进)(行)(了)(为)(期)1(年)(、)3(年)(或)5(年)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(。)

(“)(我)(同)(事)(都)(调)(侃)(我)(是)(个)(‘)(大)(忽)(悠)(’)(,)(为)(了)(第)(一)(时)(间)(组)(建)(高)(效)(、)(专)(业)(的)(团)(队)(,)(经)(常)(抄)(起)(电)(话)(、)(打)(开)(微)(信)(就)(问)(谁)(谁)(谁)(能)(去)(灾)(区)(吗)(?)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(笑)(称)(。)

(还)(是)(在)2015(年)(,)(吴)(坎)(坎)(还)(推)(动)(成)(立)(了)(公)(益)(组)(织)(“)(北)(京)(中)(科)(心)(理)(援)(助)(中)(心)(”)(。)(“)(仅)(靠)(我)(一)(个)(人)(打)(电)(话)(、)(发)(微)(信)(去)(发)(动)(志)(愿)(者)(肯)(定)(不)(太)(可)(能)(,)(而)(且)(联)(盟)(组)(织)(相)(对)(比)(较)(松)(散)(,)(这)(个)(中)(心)(的)(成)(员)(基)(本)(是)(和)(我)(一)(起)(从)(汶)(川)(地)(震)(走)(过)(来)(的)(,)(都)(是)(经)(验)(非)(常)(丰)(富)(且)(有)(热)(情)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(者)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(。)

(“)(专)(业)(、)(长)(期)(、)(可)(持)(续)(,)(这)(是)(对)(灾)(后)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(的)(基)(本)(要)(求)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(要)(做)(到)(这)(一)(点)(,)(仅)(靠)(临)(时)(驻)(扎)(灾)(区)(的)(志)(愿)(者)(是)(不)(够)(的)(。)(因)(而)(,)(张)(侃)(此)(前)(就)(提)(出)(,)(要)(通)(过)(开)(展)(培)(训)(、)(组)(织)(课)(程)(比)(赛)(等)(活)(动)(,)(培)(养)(当)(地)(的)(心)(理)(援)(助)(力)(量)(。)

(经)(过)(多)(年)(发)(展)(,) (依)(靠)(当)(地)(力)(量)(已)(成)(为)(我)(国)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(特)(色)(。)(“)(我)(们)(培)(养)(了)(一)(批)(当)(地)(力)(量)(,)(包)(括)(教)(师)(、)(妇)(联)(工)(作)(人)(员)(等)(,)(点)(燃)(了)(星)(星)(之)(火)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(。)

(“)(但)(我)(们)(感)(觉)(目)(前)(的)(力)(量)(还)(是)(不)(够)(,)(当)(多)(个)(灾)(情)(同)(时)(发)(生)(,)(就)(有)(一)(下)(子)(被)(打)(回)(原)(形)(的)(感)(觉)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(坦)(言)(,)(“)(心)(理)(援)(助)(做)(了)(这)(么)(多)(年)(,)(可)(主)(要)(还)(是)(我)(们)(这)(些)(‘)(老)(人)(’)(在)(做)(,)(新)(队)(伍)(的)(培)(养)(工)(作)(任)(重)(道)(远)(。)(”)

(近)(两)(年)(,)(他)(开)(始)(尝)(试)(从)(一)(线)(抽)(离)(,)(站)(在)(心)(理)(所)(这)(个)(国)(家)(队)(的)(立)(场)(,)(从)(更)(高)(层)(面)(看)(待)(心)(理)(援)(助)(。)

(“)(我)(们)(正)(在)(抓)(紧)(培)(训)(更)(多)(专)(业)(人)(员)(,)(比)(如)(国)(家)(救)(援)(队)(、)(国)(家)(综)(合)(性)(消)(防)(救)(援)(队)(伍)(中)(的)(专)(业)(心)(理)(疏)(导)(人)(员)(等)(。)(”)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(,)(他)(如)(今)(琢)(磨)(更)(多)(的)(,)(是)(怎)(样)(让)(更)(多)(人)(参)(与)(进)(来)(,)(如)(何)(推)(动)(心)(理)(援)(助)(成)(为)(一)(个)(学)(科)(,)(以)(及)(怎)(么)(推)(动)(国)(家)(政)(策)(落)(地)(。)

(汶)(川)(地)(震)(之)(后)(,)(国)(务)(院)(陆)(续)(将)(“)(心)(理)(援)(助)(”)(写)(入)(震)(区)(《)(灾)(后)(恢)(复)(重)(建)(条)(例)(》)(,)5(年)(后)(,)(《)(精)(神)(卫)(生)(法)(》)(要)(求)(:)(各)(级)(人)(民)(政)(府)(和)(县)(级)(以)(上)(人)(民)(政)(府)(有)(关)(部)(门)(制)(定)(的)(突)(发)(事)(件)(应)(急)(预)(案)(,)(应)(当)(包)(括)(心)(理)(援)(助)(的)(内)(容)(。)

2016(年)(,)(国)(务)(院)(办)(公)(厅)(发)(布)(的)(《)(国)(家)(自)(然)(灾)(害)(救)(助)(应)(急)(预)(案)(》)(中)(,)(Ⅰ)(、)(Ⅱ)(、)(Ⅲ)(、)(Ⅳ)(级)(应)(急)(预)(案)(都)(提)(到)(“)(国)(家)(卫)(生)(计)(生)(委)(指)(导)(受)(灾)(省)((区)(、)(市))(做)(好)(医)(疗)(救)(治)(、)(卫)(生)(防)(病)(和)(心)(理)(援)(助)(工)(作)(”)(。)

(“)(前)10(年)(有)(了)(政)(策)(,)(那)(么)(今)(后)10(年)(我)(们)(的)(主)(要)(工)(作)(是)(让)(政)(策)(发)(挥)(作)(用)(。)(“)(吴)(坎)(坎)(说)(。)

(本)(报)(记)(者) (操)(秀)(英)


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